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- A Raga's Journey — The magic of Mayamalavagowla
The rest 53 he considered as mere theoretical possibilities; and, non-functional since no known Ragas could fit in to his scheme of these Melas. Therefore, he could name only 19 Melas; the rest 53 were not assigned any names. He said Todi was a sarvaswara gamaka varika rakti raga.
Durga called Todi as one of the ragas having most samvaaditva consonance or arguably the most consonant raga. It is a very popular raga, very often sung in the concerts. Yet; Todi is known to be a difficult raga, because of the complexity in its Prayoga execution. He synthetically creates Janya Ragas for the remaining 53 Melas that were earlier considered non-functional. Here for the first time the Raga-description is based purely on its Svara-sthanas.
In the second stage the Katapayadi prefixes were added to suit the Raga-names; or the other way. Sri Muthusvami Dikshitar gave form to most of these Ragas through his compositions. As regards the A-sampura not-sampurna Ragas, Sri Muthusvami Dikshitar chose to change their structure in order to mitigate the ill-effects of direct Vivadi Svaras in their scale. However, Dr. Sathyanarayana differs. According to the dates given by Dr. This system of 72 Mela is the Karnataka Mela system of the present day. In the system devised by Akalanka, the Melakartas were complete both in the Aroha and the Avaroha.
Subrahmanya Sastry; and, published by Adyar Library, But , there is a dispute about the very name Akalanka. Further , Dr. And, seen from another view, the Mela-karta scheme appears as a product of mathematical abstraction. And, naming of the Mela, the ragas, the Svaras and introduction of Vivadi Svaras seem rather incidental to its technical process. The subtle but main difference between the two schemes appears to be the importance given to the linearity and non-linearity of the Svaras in Arohana and Avarohana.
Ramanathan explains : The difference between Mela-karta and Raganga-raga is that while the former Mela-karta had to have all the seven Svaras in both the Aroha ascent and in the Avaroha descent ; but, for the latter Raganga-raga it was sufficient if the seven Svaras were present either in Aroha or in Avaroha. In other words ; the Melakarta Ragas are all Sampurna Ragas, but the con verse is not true, i. With these stipulations, the sequence of the Svaras in Aroha and Avaroha became the defining characteristic of a Raga.
And , in about a century following the Chaturdandi-prakashika , the eminent composers , mainly the Trinity, composed Kritis in the Ragas classified under all the 72 Melas. But , in the later period , the distinction between the Mela and the Raganga-Raga gradually faded away; and, the two concepts merged into one. Thus, the formulation of the 72 Mela-prastara and the later auxiliaries greatly influenced the course of the South Indian classical music of the later period. Probably for the first time in musical history theory influenced practice. The Mela system also travelled North.
Pundit Bhatkhande states in this composition that Venkatamakhin authored the work Chaturdandi Prakasika; and, that he modelled 12 chakras with the 12 tonal scale. In the sanchari, he states that Venkatamakhi conceived of the mathematical possibility of 72 families melas of ragangas the janaka raga-s taking into account the two madhyama possibilities and the invariant Sa and Pa — not mentioned in the composition.
Bhatkhande then states that Venkatamakhi spelled out with authority and clarity the murchanas aroha-s and avaroha-s of the various bhashanga-s and upanga-s that belonged to each family raganga. This composition thus features two occurrences of the chapa. The dhatu and the matu of the composition blend extremely well and this dhrupad makes a powerful musical tribute to Venkatamakhin.
When you look back the long and interesting history of Raga in Karnataka Sangita stretching from Matanga to the present-day, you find that the system has evolved through several stages. If Matanga defined the Raga and lent it a sense of identity, it was Ramamatya that activated the process of binding the Ragas into structured groups. This was improved upon by Venkatamahin; and later perfected by Muddu Venkatamahin and Govindacharya. These series of concepts and their refinements have provided Karnataka Sangita a unique and a thorough theoretical foundation.
The 72 Mela-kartas. All are having the same tonic Shuddha Sa and fifth Shuddha Pa. All the Mela-kartas in the Chakras from 1 to 6 have a perfect fourth Shuddha Madhyama ; abbreviated as Ma. And, the Mela-karta s in the Chakras numbering 7 to 12 have augmented fourth Prati Madhyama ; abbreviated as Mi. With respect to the other notes in the scale Chakras 7 to 12 duplicate Chakras 1 to 6 respectively. Each Chakra is determined by the lowest, middle or highest variety of the second abr, Ra, Ri Ru and third note abr.
Ga, Gi, Gu. The six Ragas of each series are individually determined according to the lowest , middle and the highest variety of the sixth abr. Dha, Dhi, Dhu and seventh note abr. Na, Ni, Nu. In short, the structure of the first that is lower tetrachord purvanga of a Raga is determined by its serial chakra number, while the structure of the second the higher tetrachord uttaranga is determined by the number of scale within the particular series chakra.
Multiplying the serial chakra number after having subtracted 1 by the number 6 and adding the number of the scale within the series, one arrives at the exact Mela karta number. The schemes of 72 Mela and Mela-karta employed a system of deriving the Mela-number by referring to the first two syllables of its name. This helped in easy tracking of a Mela from among the The system of assigning a prefix number to each Mela was adopted from the ancient Katapayadi formula which classifies the letters of the Sanskrit alphabets in a specified manner.
It is not known who invented the ingenious Katapayadi formula. But, the system seems to have been in use at least since 7 th century. It is also not clear who introduced the practice of numbering the Melas by means of the Katapayadi prefixes. In the earlier references to Mela system either by Sri Vidyaranya or Ramamatya or Pundarika Vittala the prefixes were not mentioned. But, in the Appendix Anubandha to the Chatur-dandi-prakashika the Melas were already marked by Katapayadi prefixes. According to the scheme, the consonants have numerals assigned as per the above table.
In case of a conjunct, consonants attached to a non-vowel will not be valueless.
Under this naming scheme, the number of a Mela-karta Janaka Raga is obtained by decoding the first two letters using the Katapaya scheme; and reversing it. And reversing that you get 48, which is its Mela number.
A Raga's Journey — The magic of Mayamalavagowla - The Hindu
Once you get the Mela number you get its notes too. Please click on the figure for an enlarged view. Parthasarathy Sriram at. Posted by sreenivasaraos on June 12, in Music , Sangita.
And, it is regarded by some as the earliest text of the North Indian Music. Pandit V. The importance of Sangita Parijata again, I believe, can never be exaggerated. It is one of our great landmarks in the history of Northern Music. This scale will correspond with the southern scale Kharaharapriya. The Sangita Parijata is regarded as one of the source-books of Hindustani Music. Ahobala derives his music theories and principles from Raga-tarangini of Lochana Kavi 15 th century and Raga vibodha of Somanatha The Raga-tarangin i written by Lochana Kavi of Mithila discusses in detail several songs in Maithili dialect, set to Ragas and Raginis prevalent during that time.
Lochana Kavi in the traditional manner lists 22 Sruti positions.
A Raga's Journey — The magic of Mayamalavagowla
According to Emmie te Nijenhuis; Ahobala listed Ragas. Following Ramamatya and Pundarika Vittala, Ahobala classified Ragas under six Mela categories and three subdivisions: Audava pentatonic , Shadava hexa-tonic and Sampurna hepta -tonic. And, he describes Ragas in detail mentioning the Svara structure, number of their Svaras, their time of performance and their characteristic melodic phrases.
In his descriptions of the Ragas he emphasized the importance of understanding the nature and structure of the Raga. According to him, the movement of different Svaras Svara-sanchara , as also the different places Sthana of the same Svara give each Raga its unique flavour.
Ahobala does not appeal to give any classification of the Ragas under any types of parent-scale That or otherwise, although he claims to describe the ragas according to the characteristics laid down by Hanuman- Laksanani vurve tesam sammatya ca Hantimatah. But occasional references to Thats seem to indicate, that in his time, classification of Ragas under Thats had become current in the North. He gives a list of ragas, which he describes with accurate notations — Dvavimsatya satam te ca prokta loka-sukhaya ca.
Ahobala Pandlta groups them according to the time and hours prahara assigned to their appropriate periods for singmg, dividing them into three groups, for the first, second or third watches, while a string of 19 ragas are grouped together as suitable for all hours sarvada ca.
And, the Shuddha scale he refers to is the same as the one in Raga-tarangini of Lochana Kavi. As regards Vikrit Svaras the Svaras which when displaced to higher or lower positions from their original positions cause either decrease or increase in the number of Srutis between them and their neighboring Svaras , Ahobala identifies eight Vikrit Svaras : 1. Purva — Ra — at 5; 2. Komal —Re- at 6; 3. Purva — Ga- at 7 ; 4.
Komal — Ga- at 8; 5. Purva — Dha- at 18; 6. Purva — Ni — at 20; and 8. Komal — Ni — at Ahobala reproduces the ancient theory of 22 Srutis. He states that all these Srutis could be used as notes Svara in various Ragas. Instead he recommended application of Shadja-panchama-bhava in fixing the intervals.
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And says, with this Ahobala determined the length —value of Svaras on the strings of the Veena. Although Ahobala recognizes 22 Srutis in the octave, he limits his discussion to 12 in order to describe his Ragas or to illustrate his examples. He identified the 12 Svaras in terms of the length of the string of the Veena. Ahobala minimized the importance assigned to Srutis or to their numbers by comparing Svaras and Srutis with the snake and its coils, which truly are one but appear distinct only in their outward forms.
In order to determine the exact position on the string of each of these 12 Svaras, he mentions the ratios representing the divisions of the string. Pandit V N Bhatkhande writes:.